October 19, 2018

    Violent outbursts of seething gas from young red dwarfs (right) may make conditions uninhabitable on orbiting planets (left). Image: NASA, ESA, and D. Player (STScI)
    Powerful blasts of radiation by young stars detected - space science news

    Astronomers have observed a red dwarf star in a violent outburst, which was more powerful than ever detected from the sun. This powerful blast would likely prevent the habitability of any planets orbiting the red dwarf. The blast is likely powered by intense magnetic fields that get tangled by the roiling motions of the stellar atmosphere. When tangling gets too intense, the fields break, reconnect and unleash a tremendous amount of energy. The observation was made as part of a Hubble Telescope observing program.

    Read the full story: Arizona State University
    Scientific publication: Astrophysical Journal

    This colossal structure in the early universe is a galaxy proto-supercluster, named Hyperion; the image is based on real data. Image: ESO/L. Calçada & Olga Cucciati et al.
    Largest galaxy proto-supercluster found - space science news

    An international team of astronomers, using the VIMOS instrument of ESO’s Very Large Telescope, has found an enormous proto-supercluster forming in the early universe, 2.3 billion after the Big Bang. Its mass has been calculated to be more than one million billion times that of the sun. Unlike other superclusters and the supercluster of which our galaxy, the Milky Way, is part, mass is evenly distributed throughout the newly found proto-supercluster, which is due its relatively young age. These observations give more insight into the formation of the universe’s superclusters.

    Read the full story: European Southern Observatory
    Scientific publication: Astronomy and Astrophysics

    In this artist's representation, an electron orbits an atom's nucleus, spinning about its axis as a cloud of other subatomic particles are constantly emitted and reabsorbed. Image: Nicolle R. Fuller, National Science Foundation
    The electron is still round - short science news

    Researchers have measured the shape of an electron’s charge with stunning precision, and found that it is perfectly spherical. This observation is in line with the so-called « Standard Model » of particle physics. However, the Standard Model is known be wrong, because it cannot explain why the universe exists. Several theories to replace the Standard Model have therefore been forwarded, that posit that there could be heavy particles in the electron’s presence. The current experiments, in which a beam of cold thorium-oxide molecules was fired into a chamber, and the emitted light from the molecules was measured, found no evidence for such heavy particles, as this would have distorted the emitted light pattern. Thus, the current alternative theories need rethinking, and the Standard Model, although not correct, is still the best we have to describe electrons and the universe’s mysteries.

    Read the full story: Northwestern University
    Scientific publication: Nature

    One day, astronauts could hoover Venus using airships flying in the atmosphere of the planet. Credit: HAVOC/NASA
    NASA wants to send manned missions to Venus - space science news

    Planet Venus is one of the most inhospitable places one could imagine, with temperatures on the surface of 460 degrees Celsius, a toxic atmosphere and crushing pressure. However, this doesn’t stop NASA from planning a manned mission to Venus.

    The plan is to use ships that are able to hover the planet in its dense atmosphere. Between 50 and 60 km from the surface, the conditions in the atmosphere are similar to the ones found on Earth’s surface. Moreover, its density can protect astronauts from radiations.

    The imagined airship would float around Venus allowing the exploration of the planet. Overall, such a mission would require less time to complete than sending people to Mars.

    Read the full story: The Conversation
    Scientific publication: HAVOC Mission, NASA

    Stellar systems could exchange the building elements of life. Credit: NASA
    Panspermia at galactic scale: could Milky Way spread life? - science news

    The Panspermia theory claims that life may be spread throughout the universe by astronomical objects, such as asteroids.

    Now, a new study tried to understand if panspermia could be possible on a galactic scale.
    The study used a theoretical model to determine how likely it is that objects are being exchanged between star systems on a galactic scale. The model predicted that, even in the worst cases scenarios, Milky Way could be exchanging biotic components across vast distances.

    Thus, the study concluded that panspermia is viable on galactic scales, and even between galaxies. In principle, life could even be transferred between galaxies, since some stars escape from the Milky Way,” said Abraham Loeb, one of the authors.

    Read the full story: Universe Today
    Scientific publication: Arxiv

    The three panels represent moments before, during, and after the faint supernova iPTF14gqr, visible in the middle panel, appeared in the outskirts of a spiral galaxy located 920 million light years away. Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt
    The death of a star and the birth of a particular neutron star configuration - space science news

    Astronomers have observed the death of a massive star that exploded in a rapidly faiding supernova. This observation gives rise to think that the dying star had an undetected companion, and that the exploded star became a neutron star orbiting this companion, according to the researchers. Thus, the death of the massive star gave birth to a compact neutron binary system, a phenomenon that had never been observed before.

    Read the full story: Caltech
    Scientific publication: Science

    Model of a planet with a rocky core and a gaseous atmosphere. Image: UZH
    Planet size puts limits on its chemical composition - space science news

    A computational analysis has revealed that the chemical composition and structure of exoplanets has a so-called “threshold radius”, that sets limits as to what a planet can be made off. For instance, planets with a radius of 1.4 times that of the Earth can be earth-like, i.e. have a similar chemical composition than our planet. Planets with a radius above this will contain more silicates or other light materials, planets with a radius of more 1.6 times that of the Earth will have more hydrogen-helium gas and a rocky core. Big planets (with 2.6 times the radius of the Earth) cannot contain water, and the giant planets (with 4 or more times the radius of the Earth) would be very gaseous, much like Jupiter and Neptune in our solar system. Thus, this analysis provides an estimation of whether a planet is earth-like, is made of gas or rock, or is a water-world.

    Read the full story: University of Zürich
    Scientific publication: The Astrophysical Journal

    One of the oldest stars in our galaxy has an odd chemical composition and it allows scientists to understand more about the beginning of the universe. Credit: EPFL
    Newly discovered star allows study of early universe - space science news

    Astrophysicists discovered a rare star, very old and extremely low in metals. Called Pristine 221, it is among the 10 most metal-poor stars known to date in our Galaxy. Moreover, the star is almost carbon-free.

    The scientists believe that it belongs to the early generation of stars formed in the galaxy. The discovery will allow us to learn more about the early universe and to understand how the first stars were formed.

    The discovery questions our present understanding about the formation of the early stars. It was thought that carbon was needed as a cooling agent, however, the low carbon content of Pristine 221 suggests the current model has to be revised.

    Read the full story: EPFL
    Scientific publication: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

    The atmospheric haze of Titan, Saturn's largest moon (pictured here along Saturn's midsection), is captured in this natural-color image (box at left). Image: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Space Science Institute, Caltech
    New clues about how Titan’s haze was formed - space science news

    In a multidisciplinary approach including laboratory experiments, computer simulations and modeling, scientists found that the complex carbon structures found in the atmosphere of Saturn’s moon Titan could have been formed through chemical reactions under low temperature. This is contrary to current views that assume that the complex carbon structures, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), require high temperatures. The laboratory experiments formed the chemicals that have been observed in the atmosphere of Titan, the precise reaction mechanisms were revealed by the computer simulations, and the modeling showed how gases should flow so that they mix properly to produce the PAHs that form the brownish haze in Titan’s atmosphere.

    Read the full story: Berkeley National Laboratory
    Scientific publication: Nature Astronomy

    Phobos and Deimos, the moons of Mars, could be pieces ripped away from the planet. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Malin Space Science Systems/Texas A&M Univ.
    The two moons of Mars could be pieces of the planet itself - space science news headlines

    A new study about the origin of the two Martian moons contradicts previous long-lasting theories claiming that Phobos and Deimos, were asteroids captured in Mars’ gravitational pull.

    According to the new research study, the moons are made up of pieces of planet Mars itself. Most likely they were blasted off of Mars at some point in the history of the planet.

    The conclusion was based on comparing the spectral properties of the Tagish Lake meteorite (coming from the asteroid belt) with those of the Martian moons. This hypothesis is similar to the current theories about the origin of the Earth’s moon.

    Read the full story: University of Alberta
    Scientific publication: Journal of Geophysical Research

    Artist's impression of the exoplanet Kepler-1625b with the candidate exomoon orbiting it. Image: Dan Durda
    Evidence for a moon outside our solar system - space science news

    For the first time, astronomers have obtained compelling evidence for the existence of an “exomoon”, a moon outside our solar system. It is orbiting the planet Keppler 1625b, and is unusual because of its big size, roughly that of the planet Neptune. Unlike exoplanets, exomoons have not been observed until today, and even the evidence obtained in the current study needs further validation. If confirmed, the finding of the exomoon could shed light on the development of planetary systems, and on the question of how moons are formed around planets.

    Read the full story: Columbia University New York
    Scientific publication: Science Advances

    Glowing hydrogen (blue) as detected with the MUSE spectrograph around galaxies. Image: ESA/Hubble & NASA, ESO/ Lutz Wisotzki et al.
    The night sky is glowing, but you cannot see it - space science news

    With the aid of the MUSE spectrograph on ESO’s Very Large Telescope, astronomers have observed abundant Lyman-alpha emission (a spectral line of hydrogen) around distant galaxies. This observation was only possible because of improved sensitivity of the spectrograph to detect dim hydrogen glowing. The hydrogen clouds, the first building blocks of the universe, were observed in the constellation of Fornax, that has been mapped by the Hubble telescope in 2004. Extrapolation of the data indicate that most of the night sky is invisibly aglow.

    Read the full story: European Southern Observatory (ESO)
    Scientific publication: Nature

    After studying the shape of 10 million galaxies, scientists built a detailed map of dark matter. Credit: Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey
    Researchers create detailed map of dark matter in the universe - science news - space

    Using a cosmic phenomenon called gravitational lensing, scientists have created a detailed 3D map of the distribution of the elusive dark matter. This allows scientists to see where the dark energy acts in space and this, in turn, allows them to better understand its properties. The research team had to study over 10 million galaxies in order to obtain the information for building the map. The data gathered during the study suggest that dark matter might behave differently, in some aspects, then the existing models predict.

    Read the full story: LiveScience
    Scientific publication: Arxiv

    An artist's impression of a strong magnetic field of a neutron star launching a jet. Image: ICRAR/University of Amsterdam
    Surprise: neutron star with strong magnetic field launches radio jets - space science news

    Astronomers have detected radio jets coming from a neutron star with a strong magnetic field. Neutron stars are formed when a massive star runs out of energy and develops supernova that creates a strong magnetic field. At times, a companioning star, in orbit with the neutron star gives material and energy to the neutron star, that is then blasted out in powerful jets. Current theory beholds that the strong magnetic field prevents material of the companion star from entering the neutron star, so that no radio jets should be emitted. However, these new observations of radio jets being launched by neutron stars clearly show that the current theory needs to be revised, and indicate that our understanding of neutron stars is far from complete.

    Read the full story: International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research
    Scientific publication: Nature

    Phobos, the larger of Mars' two tiny satellites, pictured near the limb of Mars by the robot spacecraft Mars Express in 2010. Image: G. Neukum (FU Berlin) et al., Mars Express, DLR, ESA; Acknowledgement: Peter Masek
    New study explains how the Martian moon Phobos was formed - space science news

    By comparing mid-infrared spectra from Phobos (that had been collected already in 1998 by the Mars Global Surveyor) with those of an asteroid found near Tagish Lake in British Columbia, scientists believe that Phobos is not an asteroid captured by the gravity of Mars, as had been argued before, but has formed after a huge impact during early Martian history. The spectra have no similarity with the asteroid, and revealed that Phobos is made of basalt. Basalt is volcanic rock, and one of the major components of the surface of Mars. Thus, scientists have found evidence for the origin of Phobos that might be further confirmed once the Martian Moon eXploration spacecraft and the OSIRIS-Rex and Hayabusa2 asteroid explorers complete their missions to collect samples and return them to Earth for analysis.

    Read the full story: AGU 100
    Scientific publication: Journal of Geophysical Research – Planets

    Perturbations in the Milky Way. Image. ESA
    Milky Way was shaken by near-collision 500 million years ago and is still vibrating - space short science news

    The Milky Way has been shaken by the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy that came passing buy some 500 million years ago. Research carried out with the European Gaia satellite revealed that this near-collision has caused groups of stars to move. These starts are still moving after all these years in a circular “snail-house pattern”. It was already known that Sagittarius came along the Milky Way, but because the mass of that system was so much smaller than that of the Milky Way, it was always assumed that it had little effect on the Milky Way. The new observations give reason to reconsider some assumptions about the Milky Way, including those about black matter, researchers say.

    Read the full story: Universitat de Barcelona
    Scientific publication: Nature

    Proxima Centauri b could be a highly habitable planet. Credit NASA
    A highly habitable exoplanet in our neighbourhood - science news space

    We hear about new exoplanets being discovered almost daily, but how habitable are they after all? Using computer models similar to those used to study climate change on Earth, researchers looked at the habitability of Proxima Centauri b, the closest exoplanet, located “just” 4.2 light-years from us. The study showed that, under a wide range of conditions, this planet can sustain enormous areas of liquid water on its surface, potentially raising its prospects for harboring living organisms. “The major message from our simulations is that there's a decent chance that the planet would be habitable," said Anthony Del Genio, the lead author of a paper describing the new research.

    Read the full story: Space.com
    Scientific publication: Astrobiology

    SwRI scientists studied the binary asteroid Patroclus-Menoetius, shown in this artist’s conception, to determine that a shake-up of the giant planets likely happened early in the solar system’s history, within the first 100 million years.
    Evidence for very early migration of solar system planets - space science news

    By studying a pair of asteroids, astronomers have been able to illuminate the history of our solar system. It turns out that there has been a period of instability, involving the giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, which pushed Uranus and Neptune outwards within the first 100 million years after the solar system had been formed. These two planets met with smaller bodies that are now in the Kuiper belt, at the edge of our solar system, but a few of them scattered inwards. Two of those are the asteroids that have now been studied, and are in fact targets of NASA’s upcoming Lucy mission.

    Read the full story: Southwest Research Institute
    Scientific publication: Nature Astronomy

    The beautiful “lunar swirls” were created by erupting lava, billions of years ago. Credit: NASA/GSFC/ASU
    The mystery of ‘lunar swirls’ - science news - space

    Lunar swirls are features on the surface of the moon, not found on any other body in our solar system, whose origin is not completely understood. A new theory about how they formed was developed by a team of researchers. Using complex mathematical models, the scientists concluded that the swirls were probably caused by the interaction, some 3 billion years ago, between erupting lava and the moon’s strong magnetic field. According to the models, each swirl must stand above a magnetic object that is narrow and buried close to the moon’s surface. These objects are most likely lava tubes or disks.

    Read the full story: University of California Berkeley
    Scientific publication: Journal of Geophysical Research

    Exclusion of Pluto as a planet was based on an unvalid definition
    Pluto should be back as a planet - short science articles and news

    Pluto lost its planet status in 2006, since a group of astronomy experts, defined a planet as a body, which clears its orbit i.e. be the largest gravitational force in its orbit. However, since Neptune’s gravitational pull influences Pluto and the fact that Pluto shares it orbit with objects in the Kuiper belt, it lost it planet status. However, now researchers state that this criterion to define a planet is not supported in literature. Interestingly, there is only one publication in the last 200 years, back in 1802, which used this definition, and it has been since disproven. They further state that a planet should be defined based on its intrinsic properties and not on external dynamics like the planet’s orbit.

    Read the full story: University of Central Florida
    Scientific publication: Icarus

    Artistic impression of a red supergiant star surrounded by a veil of circumstellar material before explosion. Image: NAOJ
    Bright light emitted by dying stars - space science news

    Astronomers found that supernovae generated from red supergiants (big, old stars) flash a bright light before the main explosion. This flash of light is caused by the collision of the expanding gas of the supernova and unidentified material surrounding the dying star. This discovery was made possible by new algorithms for big data analysis techniques of real-time observations with the Victor Blanco Telescope in Chili. The occurrence of the bright light flash was not predicted by current conceptual models, and therefore sheds new light on supernovae explosions.

    Read the full story: Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory
    Scientific publication: Nature Astronomy

    Artist impression of the monster galaxy that might be the ancestor of elliptical galaxies in today's universe. Image: National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
    Monster galaxy giving nonstop birth to stars - space science news

    Using the ALMA telescope, astronomers have obtained a detailed anatomy of a monster galaxy located 12.4 billion light years away. Its clouds are extremely unstable, leading to star formation at a rate that is a thousand times faster than in other galaxies. Monster galaxies are thought to be ancestors of the “normal” elliptical galaxies in the universe, so that the observations on the monster galaxy (COSMOS-AzTEC-1) help to understand how elliptical galaxies have formed.

    Read the full story: ALMA / National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
    Scientific publication: Nature

    Jupiter's southern hemisphere photographed by NASA's Juno spacecraft. Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/GeraldEichstaedt/Sean Doran
    How Jupiter grew so big - space science news

    Mathematical modelling reveals that Jupiter has known three distinct phases of growth. During the first phase, the embryo-planet accreted small, centimeter-sized pebbles and grew quickly for one million years. The following two million years, the planet grew slower by accretion of larger, kilometer-sized rocks to 50 Earth masses. Finally, Jupiter grew really big, to the size we know today of 300 Earth masses, by accumulation gas. This model is in agreement with a previous analysis of meteorite data, and explains why Jupiter grew so surprisingly slow in the second phase.

    Read the full story: University of Bern
    Scientific publication: Nature Astronomy

    Water ice (green spots) has been found on the south (left) and north pole (right) of the moon. Image: NASA
    Direct proof of water ice on the surface of the moon - space news

    Astronomers have for the first time obtained direct evidence for the presence of water ice on the north and south pole of the moon. Using data from NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument, ice was detected in lunar craters on the south pole, while ice is more widely, but sparsely, spread on the north pole. As the ice is located in the top few mm of the moon’s surface, this frozen water is probably accessible as a resource for future expeditions to the moon.

    Read the full story: NASA – Jet Propulsion Laboratory
    Scientific publication: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA

    Composite ALMA image of NGC 6334I, with a heavy water jet in blue, and organic molecules-rich region in orange. Image: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO): NRAO/AUI/NSF, B. Saxton
    Cosmic steam jets observed in newly-forming stars - space science news

    The ALMA telescope in Chile detected high frequencies bands in the Cat’s Paw Nebula (or NGC 6334I) that indicated jets of warm water vapor streaming away from a newly forming star. This observation was only possible because of the extreme precision and sensitivity of ALMA, and the low concentrations of water vapor in the arid Chilean desert. Also, astronomers observed glycoaldehyde, the simplest sugar-related molecule. These observations are at the limit what ground-based astronomy can reveal, and fundamentally changes our understanding of the universe.

    Read the full story: National Radio Astronomy Observatory
    Scientific publication: The Astrophysical Journal Letters

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