April 23, 2019

    Secret tunnels transfer immune cells from skull bone marrow to the brain
    Hidden tunnels found between skull and brain - short science articles and news

    Bone marrow is the tissue within the hollow bones of our body which produce blood cells which help against infections. Now, researchers have discovered that there are miniature tunnels between the skull bone marrow and the brain lining which could provide a direct route for these immune cells to research the brain in case of injuries due to stroke or other disorders. The skull bone marrow contributes more to the immune response as compared to other bones and the scientists indicate that the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) could be responsible for this. They used state-of-the-art imaging techniques and found that while normally immune cells flow in this channel from skull's interior to the bone marrow (so, further inside), after brain tissue damage the cells move in the opposite direction, i.e more towards the brain.

    Read the full story: NIH
    Scientific publication: Nature Neuroscience

    Identifying the site of action of Deep Brain Stimulation could help reduce side effects
    Deep brain stimulation for patients with Parkinson's disease - short science articles and news

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used in Parkinson's patients who do not respond adequately to drugs. The brain region targetted by is the subthalamic nucleus which is not only responsible for motor processes but is also important for cognitive decision making. Researchers have now been able to show that the improved motor control is mediated by a different neural pathway as compared to the undesirable side effects like premature decision making. This could help in making the treatment more effective by using targeted therapy and thus improve the quality of life of these patients by reducing the side effects.

    Read the full story: Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin
    Scientific publication: Brain

    What sets our brain apart from an animal's brain? Perhaps the newly discovered human brain cell?
    New cell discovered in the human brain - neuroscience news

    In post-mortem tissue from two men that had donated their brains to science, neuroscientists have found a completely new cell type that seems to absent in rodents. This new neuron is located in layer I of the cortex, which is the outer part of the brain directly under the skull. It is an inhibitory neuron that puts the brakes on the activity of other cortical neurons. Its shape, which led the scientists to name it rosehip neuron, and its genetic makeup are unique. Its precise role in the brain has not yet been elucidated, nor is it known whether monkeys and apes have it. However, the fact that rats and mice, typically used in neuroscience, do not have it illustrates the difficulties scientists can experience when modeling human disease in laboratory animals.

    Read the full story: Allen Institute
    Scientific publication: Nature Neuroscience

    Infrequent news readers' brain identifies which news article could go viral
    Those who don't read the news are better at predicting which one will go viral - short science articles

    Scientists have discovered that increased activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex indicates how much a person wants to read a specific news. However, what is startling is that while the activity of ventromedial prefrontal cortex in frequent news readers lit up for all articles, the activity in the same brain region of infrequent news readers was able to differentiate between heavily shared articles and the less popular ones. Also, when frequent news shares a particular article, the connection between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and brain regions controlling thoughts and emotions gets lit up indicating that they were determining the value of a news article in correspondence to their own motivations. Infrequent news readers brain, however, reacts as to how the general audience would respond.

    Read the full story: University of Pennsylvania
    Scientific publication: Cerebral Cortex

    Hangover effects on the next day could be source of unproductive work which is grossly neglected
    The hangover lasts longer than you think - short science articles and news

    Researchers have found that the cognitive effects of alcohol last on the next day even if there is no longer any alcohol in the blood. They found that the hangover effects on psychomotor speed, long and short-term memory and attention exists on the next day too which could impair the work performance. Although almost all workplaces have a strict policy related to alcohol intoxication at work, very few grasp the seriousness of the problem regarding the effects of the hangover the next day. It is estimated that the economic loss due to hangover based absenteeism is around 1.9 billion pounds per year.

    Read the full story: University of Bath
    Scientific publication: Addiction

    A faster countdown could help improve patience of people
    People are more patient when exposed to faster countdowns - short science articles and news

    Researchers have found that time flies i.e. people become more patient when subjected to a countdown clock. They tested it on video game players and found that the speed of the countdown influenced the patience and decision-making both during and after the game. Participants were more patient when the clock quickly counted down the remaining time instead of when the clock slowly displayed the countdown. They hypothesize that a faster countdown could subconsciously indicate that the time is passing by faster and it could encourage deliberate decision-making. What's more interesting is that this could not only help manage a person's emotion but also help them make better decisions.

    Read the full story: Penn State
    Scientific publication: Timing & Time Perception

    The Prefrontal cortex is necessary for avoid act of revenge
    Brain region for suppressing revenge identified - short science news and articles

    Researchers have found that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is extremely important in suppressing the act of revenge. They developed an economic game in which the participant experiences fair behaviour from one player and unfair provocative behaviour from another. Imaging the brain during this activity researchers were able to identify which brain region is activated when the participant experienced unfairness. However, interestingly they then gave an opportunity for the participant to take revenge. What they found that the more the dorsolateral PFC was active during the provocation phase, less was the tendency for him/her to take revenge. This shows that dorsolateral PFC is involved in emotional regulation and rational behavioural choices.

    Read the full story: University of Geneva
    Scientific publication: Scientific Reports

    Vagal nerve stimulation improves quality of life in severely depressed patients.
    Nerve stimulation improves quality of life of depressed patients - short science articles and news

    While vagal nerve stimulation was approved for treatment-resistant depression in 2005, it is slowly being recognized that evaluating only the antidepressant response does not give the complete picture on the quality of life improvement. Now, researchers tested the effect of vagal nerve stimulation on 600 treatment-resistant patients (those not responding to four or more antidepressants) and found that their quality of life improved even if the depression symptoms were not completely subsided. It improved measures such as social relationships, leisure activities, ability to work and mood. Researchers indicate that increased ability to concentrate might be one of the main reasons for this effect.

    Read the full story: Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis
    Scientific publication: The journal of Clinical Psychiatry

    Sensory and cognitive decline in elderly people may be partially reversed by antidepressants
    Antidepressants may keep your brain young - neuroscience news

    In contrast to what was generally believed, the aging brain does not lose neurons, but neurons lose their arbors, a new study found. These arbors are antenna-like outgrowths of neurons that make it possible that the neuron changes (plasticity). The reduced capacity to change is likely at the basis of cognitive and sensory declines in the elderly. When the researchers gave aged mice the antidepressant fluoxetine (also known as Prozac), the neurons started to grow arbors again, and plasticity was restored. While the neuroscientists studied inhibitory interneurons in the visual cortex of mice, such rejuvenation of brain cells by an antidepressant may occur in other brain regions as well, perhaps also in the human brain.

    Read the full story: MIT – The Picower Institute
    Scientific publication: Journal of Neuroscience

    Retinal thickness could correlate with disease progression in Parkinson's disease
    Eyes could be the window to the brain of Parkinson's patients - short science news and articles

    Patients with Parkinson's gradually lose neurons which produce dopamine, the chemical which helps control movement. Scientists have now found out that thinning of the retina which is the nerve cells in the back of the eye is linked with this neuronal loss. They studied 49 individuals who were diagnosed with Parkinson's disease and discovered that thinner the retina, higher is the severity of the disease. This could lead to someday development of simple eye scans which could detect Parkinson's disease at a much earlier stage before the movement problems and then we could implement preventive strategies to prevent progression of the disease.

    Read the full story: American Academy of Neurology
    Scientific publication: Neurology

    Exposure to DDT during pregnancy could increase the risk of Autism
    First evidence linking DDT and Autism found - short science news and articles

    Researchers studied more than 1 million pregnancies in Finland and found the first evidence of the link between an insecticide and risk for autism. Blood from mothers taken during the beginning of the pregnancy was analyzed for the metabolite DDE of the insecticide DDT and the investigators found that the chances of the baby suffering from autism with intellectual disability increased by twofold if DDE levels were in the top quartile of the population. Whats more surprising is that this insecticide DDT is banned in Finland. Researchers suspect that DDE inhibits binding of hormone androgen to the receptors which is also seen in rat models of autism.

    Read the full story: Columbia University
    Scientific publication: American Journal of Psychiatry

    Depressive symptoms and poor sleep are associated with increased brain activity in areas associated with short-term memory, the self, and negative emotions
    Connection between depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality explained by new research - short science news

    New research has identified functional connectivities in the brain that mediate the association between depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality. The researchers examined data from 1,017 participants. They found that both poor sleep quality and depressive symptoms were associated with increased neural connections involving several brain regions: the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the cingulate cortex, and the precuneus. This may suggest that “people with poor sleep or depression may focus too much on the negative things and dwell on bad thoughts, which leads to a poor quality of sleep,” said author Jianfeng Feng.

    Read the full story: PsyPost
    Scientific publication: JAMA Psychiatry

    Inflammation of the brain during pregnancy could influence sexual behavior in the offspring
    Immune cells decide whether to display male or female sexual behavior - neuroscience news

    A surprising outcome of a recent study reveals that a certain type of immune cells, known as mast cells, play an important role in determining whether an animal will display male or female sexual behavior. When mast cells are silenced in young male rats, female sexual behavior was observed when these rats were adults. When these cells were activated in young female rats, the animals displayed male sexual behavior in adulthood. Mast cells in male rats appeared to be activated by estrogen, a hormone that drives the development of male traits. This study shows that immune cells steer the development of sexual behavior, so that it is possible that allergic reactions, injury or inflammation during pregnancy could influence sexual behavior in the offspring, probably also in humans.

    Read the full story: Ohio State University
    Scientific publication: Journal of Neuroscience

    Negative mood linked to neuropsychiatric disorders is localized in the brain's caudate nucleus
    Pinpointing pessimism - neuroscience news

    By stimulating a brain region known as the caudate nucleus, scientists found that experimental animals generate rather negative expectations. Such negative mood makes the stimulated animals focus on negative outcomes of a given situation, more than on potential benefits. By giving more weight to negative outlook, the animals make more negative decisions. The localization of negative moods to the caudate nucleus is relevant for patients with neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety or depression, who manifest similar negative outlooks that cloud decision-making.

    Read the full story: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Scientific publication: Neuron

    Picture of Dopamine neurons involved in Social interaction. Credit: UNIGE
    Poor maturation of synapses responsible for poor social interactions in autism - science news in short

    One of the hallmark symptoms of autism is a deficit in social interactions. A new study from the Universities of Geneva and Basel revealed some of the neural mechanism that could explain how this happens. A malfunction of the synaptic activity of the neurons present in the reward system seems to be important. To understand this, scientists studied mice in whom a gene called “Neuroligin 3” was suppressed or whose activity in dopaminergic neurons had been greatly reduced, in order to imitate a mutation identified in autistic people. Unlike their counterparts, these mice had a lack of interest in novelty and less motivation to interact socially, behavioral traits frequently found in some autistic individuals. The study is taking one step further in the understanding of a disorder that affects more than one child in 200 today.

    Read the full story: University of Geneva
    Scientific publication: Nature Communications

    Increasing temperatures may lead to higher suicide rates due to the impact of warmer weather on how individuals perceive, evaluate and act on their own personal situation
    Global warming will likely increase suicide rates globally - science news

    According to a new study, rising temperature due to global warming will have a surprising effect: they will increase the rates of suicide worldwide. The study estimates that by 2050 increasing temperatures could lead to an additional 21,000 suicides in the United States and Mexico. Until now, it has been difficult to disentangle the role of temperature and other risk factors in suicide. This study could be the first evidence that climate change will have a substantial effect on mental health, with tragic consequences.

    Read the full story: Univresity of California, Berkely
    Scientific publication: Nature Climate Change

    The parietal cortex detects and corrects errors in this aspiring tennis player
    Where is the error? The parietal cortex knows! - neuroscience news

    Practice is needed to acquire new skills. One would for instance need to learn to control one’s own movements, as well as those of a moving target, like when you want to hit a tennis ball. A miss can be caused by your own, untrained, motor system or by an unexpected curve of the tennis ball. As these two errors mean different things to learn, neuroscientists have sought, and found, the brain region that may differentiate between one’s own motor errors and prediction errors imposed by the target. It turned out that Brodmann area 5 in the parietal cortex detects movement errors and provides signals for correction, whereas the neighboring Brodmann area 7 detect target errors. These findings give insight in learning on the basis of correction of errors, and might be used to improve learning methods for robots.

    Read the full story: Osaka University
    Scientific publication: Current Biology

    One neuron can link two memories, but will store unique features of each in its synapses
    Memories share cells, but not synaptic plasticity - neuroscience news

    How two memories are on the one hand stored together in the same cells, but on the other hand remain their unique identity has long remained a mystery. By learning mice to be scared off two different tones that were delivered five hours apart, researchers have found that the memory of fear is shared by the same neurons in the amygdala (the almond-shaped brain structure important for fear), but that the points (synapses) on these neurons that receive the information about the fearful stimulus are not. Thus, the researchers were able to downplay the synaptic strength for one tone (the animals show less fear behavior), while leaving the strength for the other intact (fear response for the second tone remains the same). Thus, the sharing of cells links memories, but specific synaptic activity gives the identity to each fear memory.

    Read the full story: Japan Science and Technology Agency
    Scientific publication: Science

    Expecting a difficult day could affect your working memory
    Your cognitive ability decreases if you expect a stressful day - short science articles

    Researchers have found that if you begin your day by thinking how stressful it is going to be, harms your mindset throughout the day. It specifically affects our working memory which is that memory which helps people learn and retain information even when distracted. This indicates that the stress process commences way before a stressful event happens. This lower working memory has a negative impact on an individuals life, especially in older adults who are experiencing cognitive decline.

    Read the full story: Penn State
    Scientific publication: The Journals of Gerontology

    Light entering the eye is converted into action in the brain
    From vision to action - neuroscience news

    Things you see reach the brain via the eyes, where the visual signal will be converted into movement to react adequately to what it was that you have seen. By adapting mouse cells so that they start to emit fluorescent light when they become active, neuroscientists were able to identify the brain region that is important for the association between visual input and motor output. The mice were placed in a task, where two visual stimuli either indicated that they should lick to get a liquid reward, or should remain immobile. The cells in the parietal cortex were especially active during a combination of visual stimulation and muscle activity, identifying this region as a central node in the conversion from seeing to acting.

    Read the full story: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Scientific publication: Nature Communications

    fMRI showed the importance of injection volume in the brain in this study
    Small and precise: new drug delivery tools for the brain - neuroscience news

    Neuroscientists have implanted microprobes into the brain that allows for a precise control of the volume of a drug (down to nanoliters!), and in very precisely defined brain areas. The infusions were monitored by fMRI, so that the effects of volume on brain activity could be assessed directly. While the current study is a proof-of-concept study in laboratory animals, it is nevertheless an important step forward for the treatment of neurological diseases. Two of the current problems is that today’s delivery methods either require bigger cannulae and probes, and that the volume injected and injection site cannot be controlled accurately. To circumvent these problems, miniaturization is necessary and will reduce side-effects.

    Read the full story: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Scientific publication: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA

    Chronic stress can lead to anxiety and depression.
    Newborn cells in the brain help to protect against stress - neuroscience news

    New neurons that are formed in the hippocampus, an important memory center and controlling emotions, appear to dampen the effects of chronic stress, a new study found. When the amount of new neurons in the hippocampus of mice is experimentally doubled, these mice are less stressed by the presence of a big, dominant mouse, and their hippocampus becomes less active. This study made it possible to look at biological reactions to stress in real-time, and now researchers hope to find ways to increase the birth of new hippocampal cells in humans for the development of new and hopefully more effective antidepressants.

    Read the full story: Columbia University – Irving Medical Center
    Scientific publication: Nature

    A new receptor with no known brain function could be a target for treatment of alcohol addiction
    A novel target for treating alcoholism - short science articles

    Researchers have discovered a new target in the brain, a receptor which has no known function which could reduce excessive alcohol use and withdrawal symptoms in a rat model of alcohol addiction. While over 1/3rd of the approved drugs belong to the G-protein coupled receptor family, one receptor, the GPR139 is highly expressed in a brain region called habenula which plays a critical role in addiction. Researchers activated this receptor and it reduced alcohol intake and also restored pain sensitivity in compulsively drinking alcohol mice.

    Read the full story: ScienceDaily
    Scientific publication: eNeuro

    Dopamine is necessary for forgetting fear memory
    Dopamine plays a role in unlearning fear - short science articles

    Researchers have discovered a brain circuit necessary for unlearning fear. Rats were trained to associate a sound with a foot shock and then trained them to unlearn fear. However, they found that certain neurons in the brain which secrete dopamine were necessary to fire for this unlearning to occur. Then researchers deactivated these dopamine neurons and discovered that inhibiting them prevented the rats from unlearning the fear. They used a technique called optogenetics by which certain neurons can be selectively activated or inactivated using light. Now, they are trying to develop drugs to manipulate fear memories.

    Read the full story: ScienceDaily
    Scientific publication: Nature Communications

    Serotonin modulated learning by influencing plasticity
    Serotonin might be involved in learning - short science articles

    Researchers have shown that serotonin which is one of the most widely available chemicals in the brain might be involved in learning. They used the optogenetic technique in which one can modulate neuron firing using light and found that the learning rate in mice was modulated by serotonin stimulation. Mice normally use a win-stay, lose-switch strategy in which they repeated a choice which was rewards but shifted if that choice wasn't rewarded. However, serotonin accentuated a long-term strategy in which they made decisions based on a long history of rewards. Scientists suggest that serotonin boosted plasticity by influencing rate of learning.

    Read the full story: UCL
    Scientific publication: Nature Communications

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