May 26, 2019

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics might develop slower when the bacteria are exposed to a stressor at the same time
    Bacteria show slower evolution when facing two stressors at the same time - life short science news

    Bacteria can adapt relatively quickly to altered living conditions, but they are much less efficient in doing so when they are facing two stressors at the same time. New research has shown that predator stress and antibiotics applied together slowed the development of protection and resistance.

    Genetic analyses revealed that predation and antibiotics each induced a unique set of mutations when applied alone, but when combined, also mutate other genes and thus slow down adaptation processes.

    Such slower bacterial evolution when two stressors are presented might lead to strategies to interfere with the development of antibiotics resistance, which represents a growing problem in human health care.

    Read the full story: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
    Scientific publication: Nature Ecology and Evolution

    Scientists obtained a new sex chromosome in fish. Credit: the researchers via the University of Konstanz
    Experimental hybridization created a new sex chromosome in swordtail fish - science news headlines

    Fishes, unlike mammals that use the standard XX, XY chromosomal mechanism, have a wide variety of sex determination systems. Why this is the case, is currently unknown.

    The better understand sex chromosomes in fish, scientists performed hybridization experiments with swordtail fish with different sex chromosome systems. After more than 100 generations of fish, spanning over 30 years, an evolutionary new sex chromosome was obtained.

    The work shows that hybridization can speed up the evolution of sex chromosomes. Moreover, the study offers new insights into the genomic consequences of the long-term experimental hybridization in fish.

    Read the full story: University of Konstanz
    Scientific publication: Nature Communications

    Scientists scrutinized the painting “Incoronazione della Virgine
    A rich ecosystem of microorganisms found in old painting - science news

    A painting completed in 1620 was analyzed by scientists looking to understand what microorganisms live in such an environment. Using microscopy and microbiology techniques, the researchers concluded that a wide range of bacteria and fungi may live on old paintings.

    Interestingly, while some of them incur damage to the painting, other microorganisms may be used to protect the artwork. The study tested a decontamination formula containing spores of three Bacillus bacteria. It was found to be effective, inhibiting the growth of both the bacteria and the fungi found on the painting.

    It is important to classify the microorganisms involved in biodeterioration of art pieces. Moreover, it is interesting that the study showed that some microorganisms can actually protect paintings.

    Read the full story: ScienceDaily
    Scientific publication: PLOS One

    PIN is only found in the upper end of each cell and marks polarity (magenta). Image: Matouš Glanc
    Plant cells know where is up and down thanks to their mother cell - life short science news

    For plants, it is important to know where is up and where is down, so that roots can grow down into the soil, and the rest of the plant can grow up to the light. Which each cell division as the plant grows, polarity in one of the two daughter cells is lost.

    Biologists have now found that polarity is reestablished through a signal from the mother cell (i.e. from the cell that divided into two new cells), and is not signaled by neighboring cells. This signal depends on enzymatic activity and leads to the proper location of certain proteins such as PIN (a plant hormone transporter) that signal polarity.

    Such signaling makes it possible that plants grow in the correct way.

    Read the full story: Institute of Science and Technology Austria
    Scientific publication: Nature Plants

    In rural areas, children tend to prefer spending time in front of screens instead of going outside
    Kids in rural regions spend less time outdoors - short science news headlines

    A troubling trend is revealed by a new study, showing that even kids from rural areas now spend more time in front of screens and less time outside.

    The study investigated children from rural South Carolina, USA. The results of the study show that screen time was higher than outdoor time for almost all groups tested.

    This change in the behavior of the youth may have profound negative implications for their development. Moreover, it is likely that the same trend occurs currently all over the world.

    Read the full story: PsyPost
    Scientific publication: Environment and Behavior

    Scientists developed an algorithm to measure how influential a film is
    This is the most “influential” film ever, according to science - science news

    An original study investigated over 47,000 films listed on the internet movie database IMDb to understand which one is the most influential film of all times. The top criterion was the number of times one particular movie has been referenced to by subsequent films, similar to how the impact of a scientific paper is measured.

    According to the researches, the most influential film ever was “The Wizard of Oz”, followed by “Star Wars” and “Psycho”. All the films found in the top 20 were produced before 1980. The algorithm used to rank the movies provides an alternative to the standard box office rankings.

    The same algorithm was also used to rank directors and actors. When applied to actors, Samuel L. Jackson, Clint Eastwood and Tom Cruise ranked as the top three.

    Read the full story: ScienceDaily
    Scientific publication: Applied Network Science

    The manta ray fish has two strange horns, but how did they appear?
    Why does the manta ray have horns - daily science news

    The manta ray has two fleshy horns on its head which earned it the name of “devil ray”. The question is how did these horns appear in the evolution of the species?

    To investigate this, researchers studied genetic material from the embryos of the cownose rays, a close relative of the “devil”. The results showed that the horns are in fact the foremost bit of fin, which was modified in time, to serve a different purpose.

    This confirms a theory popular among evolutionary scientists claiming that novel features, often strange ones, can appear in nature from minor evolutionary twists.

    Read the full story: San Francisco State University
    Scientific publication: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution

    Flounders in Boston Harbor are now free of liver cancer following a massive environmental cleanup. Image: Chris Pickerell, Cornell Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County
    Environmental cleaning pays off: no more flounders with liver cancer in Boston Harbor - life short science news

    Long-term environmental cleanup efforts of Boston Harbor, once one of the most polluted harbors in America, has led to the disappearance of liver cancer in flounders.

    Back in 1985, 75% of the flounders caught here suffered from this disease, but measures to reduce sewage sludge, nutrients and toxins in the harbor, including the construction of an outflow discharge tunnel completed in 2000, dramatically increased flounder health.

    The last flounder with cancer was caught in 2004, indicating that the staggering cleaning efforts have resulted in cleaner water bearing less risk for human health.

    Read the full story: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Scientific publication: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

    The adult stage of the newly discovered parastic Zatypota sp. Image: Philippe Fernandez-Fournier
    Newly discovered wasp turns a social spider into a wandering zombie - life short science news

    A new species of parasitic wasp has been discovered in Ecuador that uses a social spider for the development of its larvae. in a rather extreme way, never observed before.

    A female wasp lays an egg on the abdomen of the spider, the larva hatches, and attaches itself to the spider. It probably feeds on the spider’s haemolymph (resembling our blood), grows, and takes over the spider’s body.

    The spider is now under control of the wasp larva, exits the colony and spins a cocoon, before the larva kills and eats it. The well-fed larva enters the cocoon and develops into an adult wasp in nine to eleven days.

    Read the full story: University of British Columbia
    Scientific publication: Ecological Entomology

    Similar to humans, giraffes prefer to look for food and eat together with a friend
    Giraffes prefer the company of friends - science news headlines

    The social behavior of giraffes is complex and, in some aspects, similar to ours. According to a new study, giraffes prefer the company of their friends, a preferred individual from the group, when searching for food and eating.

    The researchers identified giraffes using photos and observed them in a wide variety of habitats and situations. After two years, they discovered that a given giraffe prefers to eat with a certain individual, a “friend”.

    This behavior offers several benefits. A friend is more reliable at alarming you about a dangerous situation. Moreover, when the eating behavior is compatible it is easier for friends to cooperate when searching for food.

    Read the full story: University of Bristol
    Scientific publication: Animal Behaviour

    The populations of microbes living in our mouth have changed since the medieval era. Credit: Liam Lanigan
    Medieval teeth reveal how oral bacteria changed - latest science news daily

    A new study analyzed medieval human remains from Denmark to uncover how bacteria living in the human mouth changed over time.

    The dental plaque found on the teeth suggest that oral microbiomes from those times were very different compared to modern times. Most likely this is due to the changes in our lifestyles. Present diets include much more variety than medieval diets. Moreover, today we have antibiotics which, together with other environmental factors, have an impact on out microbes.

    Interestingly, many species of bacteria identified in the medieval samples are associated with higher risk of tooth and gum disease, suggesting, as expected, that the health status was not great in the past.

    Read the full story: ArsTechnica
    Scientific publication: Nature Communications

    When exposed to a dangerous virus, frogs respond by breeding younger. Credit: Bernie, via Wikimedia Commons
    Frogs reproduce younger to escape virus - science news headlines daily

    Ranaviruses affect frogs (Rana temporaria) but no information is available about how they affect population demographic structure. Now, a group of researchers showed that frogs are breeding at a younger age when exposed to the viruses.

    The study was performed in the UK and it compares populations of frogs exposed to the virus with unaffected groups. While the youngest breeding frogs in disease-free populations are four years old, frogs in virus-exposed groups breed as young as two.

    The decrease in breeding age is a mechanism to beat the virus however, it increases the risk of local extinction. The ranavirus can cause severe skin sores and internal bleeding. It is usually fatal.

    Read the full story: University of Exeter
    Scientific publication: PeerJ

    Salmon are shrinking and this has genetic basis
    Salmon are shrinking and mature faster - life short science news

    By studying scales, collected over a 40 years period, biologists have found that male salmon are becoming smaller. It appeared that the reduced body size has a genetic basis, such that the genotype for larger body size is now less common than the genotype for smaller body size. This change in the genes shows that the change in body size reflects “evolution in action”. It seems that salmon mature faster, i.e. at a younger age, and therefore don’t grow as big as they used to do. It is not clear as to what the evolutionary benefit might be of smaller body size, but biologists hypothesize that salmon are more likely to die during their time at sea, and would thus be better off returning to the rivers to spawn earlier.

    Read the full story: University of Helsinki
    Scientific publication: Nature Ecology & Evolution

    Scientists developed a test to predict the ability of people to handle emotions at work
    New emotional intelligence test can predict employee’s abilities - latest science news in short

    Researchers developed an emotional intelligence test claimed to accurately predict the abilities of an employee for social interactions and leadership capabilities. Emotional intelligence is one’s ability to understand, recognize and manage emotions.

    The test, titled the Geneva Emotion Competence Test (GECO), consists of four different sections evaluating different aspects: understanding emotions, recognizing emotions, regulating one’s own emotions and managing other people’s emotions.

    The questionnaire was designed based on inputs from 40 managers. Then, the test was validated on more than 1,000 individuals. The importance of emotional intelligence is widely acknowledged and soon hiring managers could use this test in addition to evaluating the training and career history of a candidate.

    Read the full story: University of Geneva
    Scientific publication: Journal of Applied Psychology

    Scientists come out with recommendations for improving work meetings
    The secrets behind better workplace meetings, according to science - short daily science news

    Meetings are frequent in work organizations, whether we like it or not. However, not all of them are useful and valuable. A group of scientists analyzed almost 200 studies about workplace meetings and came out with a set of guidelines for the perfect meeting.

    In short, there are several things that need to be taken care of before, during and after a meeting. To see all the recommendations, please read the long version following the link below.

    Under ideal circumstances, meetings can provide a place for creative thinking, problem-solving, discussion, and idea generation. In reality, many employees are unhappy with them and the research showed that they spend up to 6 hours per week in meetings.

    Read the full story: ScienceBriefss
    Scientific publication: Current Directions in Psychological Science

    Our ancestors had many skeletal anomalies, likely due to inbreeding. Credit: Erik Trinkaus
    Why early humans had skeletal abnormalities - science news

    The anatomy of ancient skeletons suggests that early humans had an unusually high number of birth defects affecting the skeleton. A recent study supports the idea that this is because of frequent inbreeding among small groups, although other explanations are also possible.

    The human bones described in the study date between 2.5 million to 9,700 years B.C.E. and come from various regions around the globe. They had a very high incidence of abnormalities, many of them induced by known genetic mutations, suggesting that some of those ancient people were somehow related.

    Inbreeding could have promoted the spreading of harmful genetic mutations within the populations. Evidence based on genetic analysis of early humans also supports this hypothesis.

    Read the full story: Sciencemag
    Scientific publication: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

    Two religious complexes from antique Chile offer clues about the early local civilization. Credit: copyright Antiquity Publications Ltd.
    Ancient ceremonial complexes discovered in Atacama Desert - scienc news in short - archeology

    The world’s driest desert, Atacama, offered archeologists a nice surprise in the form of two ancient ceremonial complexes one kilometer (0.62 miles) apart. The oldest of them is believed to be 5000 years old.

    The discovery shows that in the past people flourished in such harsh places, likely in regions called “eco-refuges”, places that had basic resources like water and plants. One of the sites contained impressive treasures: massive stone monuments, offerings of gold and rare materials, and infant burials.

    The discoveries suggest that early monumentalism in the Atacama may reflect the emergence of complex social organization among late hunter-gatherers.

    Read the full story: LiveScience
    Scientific publication: Antiquity

    Inflammation in the brain was associated with postpartum depression
    Immune system linked to postpartum depression - latest science news in short

    A new study showed that signs of inflammation are found in brain areas responsible for mood regulation in an animal model of postpartum depression. This suggests a link between the immune system, the brain, and depression.

    About 15% of mothers experience depression after birth. The study found that immune system changes triggered inflammation in the medial prefrontal cortex. In the animals used for the study, this was induced by a stressful pregnancy.

    “Postpartum depression is understudied and, as a result, remains poorly understood,” said the lead author. It is hoped that future research in this direction could improve the lives of women affected by the disorder.

    Read the full story: The Ohio State University
    Scientific publication: Society for Neuroscience Meeting 2018

    Dividing cells are kept in place by a newly discovered cellular structure
    New cell structure discovered - life short science news

    Cell biologists have discovered a new cell structure that plays a role in cell division. It is a protein complex that interacts with surrounding proteins to keep the cells in place when they divide. Other such complexes had already been found, but the newly discovered structure is unique in that it stays intact during cell division, whereas the others dissolve. The complex also makes sure that the daughter cells end up at their proper location after cell division. The discovery has been made using human cells, and future research has to show how the complex functions in living animals and humans.

    Read the full story: Karolinska Institutet
    Scientific publication: Nature Cell Biology

    In an urban experiment, people that received more money gave less for efforts against climate change. Credit: Universitat Rovira I Virgili
    Richer people do less to fight climate change - daily science news - environment

    A citizen science experiment that quantified how much people do to act against climate changes gave an interesting result: it appears that wealthier people are willing to do less than others.

    Participants were grouped and given a certain amount of money from which they had to contribute to efforts for climate preservation. They were allowed to keep any money that was left over. The poorer participants (that received less money at the beginning) spent more compared to richer participants (who started the experiment with higher amounts).

    The study demonstrated that cooperation within a group of participants was better than competition between individuals. Moreover, it suggests that discussing generic global climate consequences does not lead to equitable efforts to fight against it.

    Read the full story: University Rovira I Virgili
    Scientific publication: PLoS ONE

    Infections are the leading cause of crop loss, accounting for 10% worldwide
    New gene discovered that might help crops withstand infections - life short science news

    Scientists have found that the hitherto unknown gene SRG1 strengthens the immune response of plants against infections. The expression of this gene stimulated by the production of the gas nitric oxide that plants produce in tiny amounts when they are under bacterial or viral attack. This finding gives more insight in the defense of plants against infections and could help to reduce crop losses.

    Read the full story: University of Edinburgh
    Scientific publication: Nature Communications

    Robust corals synthesize histidine themselves, and do not depend on symbiotic algae for this essential amino acid
    Some corals likely to resist bleaching - life short science news

    Corals known as « robust corals » are more likely to survive bleaching than other corals, owing to their ability to synthesize an essential amino acid (histidine) themselves, a new study found. Robust corals are the only animals known to synthesize histidine, needed for the production of proteins, and not to depend for this on the algae they live with. In other corals, algae are the only source of histidine, and therefore depend on them for their survival. Therefore, unlike robust corals, the other corals (called complex corals), are more susceptible to coral bleaching (when algae disappear from the corals) and global warming.

    Read the full story: Arc Centre of Excellence - Coral Reef Studie
    Scientific publication: Genome Biology

    Hypothesized direct and indirect effects of picaridin on aquatic predators of mosquito larvae indicating a human-environment positive feedback loop. Image: Leslie Tumblety
    Widely used mosquito repellent is lethal to their predators - life short science news

    Insect repellents containing picaridin can be lethal to salamander larvae, the natural predators of mosquito larvae. A toxicity study in the laboratory with realistic concentrations of repellent in the water showed that about half of the larval salamanders in the study died within 25 days of exposure, while the mosquito larvae were unaffected. This suggests that using the picaridin-containing repellent, which enters aquatic ecosystems through sewage effluent, might in fact increase the survival of mosquito larvae, and consequently also the numbers of adult mosquitos that people want to combat with the repellent. This might constitute a feedback loop that leads to fewer salamanders and more mosquitos over time.

    Read the full story: Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
    Scientific publication: Biology Letters

    Showerheads harbor large numbers of bacteria, including some that could trigger lung diseases
    Showerheads contain bacteria that could trigger lung infections - daily science news in short

    Showerheads are not a very clean place, they contain several types of bacteria. A group of scientists found that the regions where pathogenic bacteria are most prevalent in showerheads are the same regions where nontuberculous mycobacteria lung infections are common.

    The study surveyed households across the United States and Europe and found that the bacterial populations differ depending on geographic location, water chemistry, and water source. Households that received water treated with chlorine disinfectants had particularly high abundances of certain mycobacteria.

    The study highlights a possible connection between mycobacteria in showerheads and lung diseases and could lead to new strategies to reduce exposure to such pathogens.

    Read the full story: American Society for Microbiology
    Scientific publication: mBio

    Sacabambaspis, a 460 million year old jawless relative of modern jawed fishes, swims in the shallow coastal waters of modern day Bolivia. Image: Nobumichi Tamura
    All fish species find their evolutionary origin in seashore environments - life science news

    Early fish types have emerged from fragile seashore environments between 480 and 360 million years ago, new data suggest. Due to the scarcity of fossils from this period, scientists adopted a big data approach, surveying more than 2,700 early records, and matched these with mathematical modeling to predict the habitat from where early fish types emerged. They found that some fish species evolved into groups with flexible body shape that were able to leave the seashores and colonize deep waters. Other, more rigid or armored species, would have had limited swimming ability, and remained in shallow waters. Some fish moved into fresh water, and others eventually reached land to give rise to the terrestrial vertebrates we know today. The study highlights the importance of shallow water for evolutionary development of fish species, and gives more reason to protect this habitat from consequences of global warming.

    Read the full story: University of Birmingham
    Scientific publication: Science

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