October 20, 2018

    Nicotine changes the DNA in sperm cells, causing cognitive deficits in the offspring
    Smoking by fathers may cause health problems in their children - health science news

    Studies in mice have revealed that nicotine exposure induces epigenetic changes on the DNA in sperm cells. When the male mice that had received nicotine at the time of sperm production were mated with nicotine-free female mice, their offspring displayed hyperactivity, attention deficit and cognitive inflexibility. These neural problems were not caused by behavioral changes of the father, but by epigenetic changes of multiple genes. This included the dopamine receptor D2 gene, which is important for learning and brain development, and could be at the origin of the cognitive deficits in the offspring. Further research is necessary to determine whether similar epigenetic changes occur in sperm cells of smoking men.

    Read the full story: Florida State University
    Scientific publication: PLoS Biology


    Migration of primordial germ cells in the human embryo. Image: Laurence Zulianello
    Origin of some cancers in young women revealed . health science news

    A new study has found that primordial germ cells (cells that will give rise to oocytes during adulthood) at times do not migrate to the gonads, but end up in the pancreas or the ovaries during embryonic development. Here, they increase the risk for cancer, which can occur thirty years later. This mechanism underlying these so-called « mucinous cancers » was found following large-scale analyses of genomic data. The faulty migration of primordial germ cells explains why only young women, not men, can have pancreatic cancer without the involvement of sex hormones.

    Read the full story: Université de Genève
    Scientific publication: Journal of Pathology


    Ground zero. Interest for the effects of terrorism on mental health was sparked by the events of 9/11.
    Terrorism does not increase PTSD more than expected - health science news

    By reviewing more than 400 scientific publications describing the association between acts of terrorism and mental health, scientists conclude that terrorims does not cause more post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than would be expected from any other traumatizing or distressing event. This observation goes against the much heard view in the media that terrorist attacks negatively impact on peoples’ psychological wellbeing. The scientists argue that policy-makers should focus more on promoting social bonds and people’s resilience in response to terrorist attacks, rather than stressing peoples’ psychological vulnerability.

    Read the full story: University of Bath
    Scientific publication: The Lancet Psychiatry


    The pattern of the presence of many metabolites is the best predictor of obesity-related diseases
    Metabolites predict the risk for obesity-related diseases - health science news

    Predictors of future diabetes and cardiovascular disease for a person with obesity can be found among the body’s metabolites, new research shows. Metabolites were analyzed in almost 2400 people and it appeared that the composition of metabolites was profoundly altered with obesity. The most important changes concerned the metabolites that influence how the body distributes fat. 49 of the metabolites showed a strong correlation with the body mass index (BMI), a measure of obesity. The measurements allowed for an accurate prediction rate of obesity status of 80-90 percent. The study shows that looking at one metabolite or one indicator often is not enough for proper prediction of disease, but that the pattern of metabolites as a whole is the best biomarker.

    Read the full story: Scripps Research
    Scientific publication: Cell Metabolism


    Device uses laser technology to detect glucose levels under the skin, an alternative to painful pricking. Image: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Noninvasive blood glucose test appears effective - diabetes science news

    In the queste for noninvasive methods to measure glucose in the blood, researchers have now established a laser device that accurately detects glucose levels under the skin. When comparing the results of glucose measuring through a painful finger prick, the new laser technology obtains similar acurate glucose values in twenty healthy volunteers, before and after drinking a glucose-rich beverage. For those living with diabetes, and having to monitor their glucose levels on a daily basis, there seems to be hope on the horizon that, after further testing of the device, painful finger pricking will no longer be necessary in the not too distant future.

    Read the full story: University of Missouri
    Scientific publication: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry


    Repair of DNA by gene editing techniques might be the way forward to treat metabolic diseases in the future
    Genetic metabolic disease cured in mice by gene editing - health science news

    By using a new genome editing technique, researchers have repaired a gene (phenylalanine hydroxylase) in the liver that causes the metabolic disease known as phenylketonuria. This disease should be diagnosed as soon as possible in babies, because the baby’s diet has to be phenylalanine-free to prevent accumulation of this amino acid, and subsequent mental retardation. Gene repair was achieved by delivering the genes necessary for the repair in a harmless virus that infects liver cells. These cells will make use of the genes brought by the virus, and repair the gene, so that the liver can metabolize phenylalanine. Thus, this new gene editing technique holds great promise for the future treatment of this and other metabolic diseases in humans.

    Read the full story: ETH Zürich
    Scientific publication: Nature Medicine


    Two cancers originating from different organs share very similar genetic mechanisms when they become invasive. A microscopic image of small cell neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Credit: UCLA
    Aggressive prostate and lung cancers share similar mechanisms - health science news - cancer

    The development of late-stage prostate and lung cancers is similar in the genetic mechanisms that underly their aggressivity, according to a new study.

    Even if initially they are genetically very different, when they reach the small cells stage (highly malignant cancer) they become almost identical.

    Discovery of the shared mechanisms could lead to a better understanding of invasive cancers and may help to discover the “master genes” that regulate cancer development and spreading.

    Read the full story: University of California, Los Angeles
    Scientific publication: Science


    A natural killer (NK) cell binds to a malaria-infected red blood cell and destroys it. Credit: Weijian Ye, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology
    Malaria severity depends on immune cells variations - science news

    According to new research, the severity of malaria is influenced by the failure of some components of the immune system to effectively destroy infected blood cells.

    Basically, a type of immune cells (NK – natural killer) cannot activate a genetic programme required to fight the disease. This doesn’t happen in all individuals, due to variations in the NK cells, and it explains why some people are more likely to experience more severe symptoms of malaria.

    Researchers managed to re-activate these cells in the lab, suggesting the possibility to develop treatments that could reduce the severity of malaria.

    Read the full story: MIT
    Scientific publication: PLOS Pathogens


    Resveratrol is found in grapes and, at least in mice, has been found to protect against lung cancer
    Resveratrol, found in grapes, protects against lung cancer - health science news

    Scientists have created a new formula for the application of resveratrol to protect against lung cancer. Resveratrol, which is found in grapes and red wine, was found to be most effective when applied intranasally in mice that had been exposed to a carcinogenic substance from cigarette smoke. The amount of resveratrol that reached the lungs was 22 times higher when compared with oral intake that is without effect. As resveratrol is already used in food supplements, no further toxicity studies are needed prior to commercialization as a preventive treatment of lung cancer.

    Read the full story: University of Geneva
    Scientific publication: Scientific Reports


    Cancers satisfy their appetite by creating a diabetes-like state
    Cancers feed on glucose by inhibiting glucose uptake by healthy cells - cancer science news

    Cancer cells have been found to induce a diabetes-like state so that healthy cells take up less glucose, leaving more glucose available for the cancer cells and tumor growth, a new study in mice reports. They do this in two ways. First, tumor cells stimulate fat cells to produce more IGFBP1 protein. This makes healthy cells less sensitive to insulin, so that more insulin is required for glucose uptake. Second, cancers turn the production of insulin down. In part they do this through the gut. Mice with leukemia miss bacteroids in their intestines, which produce short-chain fatty acids that in turn feed the health of cells lining your gut. The gut cells will now stop the production of hormones called incretins that normally help to get glucose levels down after a meal. On top of this, tumors reduce the activity of serotonin, an essential molecule for the synthesis of insulin. Giving mice with leukemia short-chain fatty acids and serotonin prolongs their lives and reduces tumor growth, suggesting that it should be possible in the future to develop treatments that favor healthy cells, and disfavor cancer cells. 

    Read the full story: University of Colorado – Anschutz Medical Campus
    Scientific publication: Cancer Cell


    Tumor signaling can stop development of secondary tumors in the case of some breast cancers
    Pressing the pause button for breast cancer development - latest science news headlines

    A team of scientists has discovered an interesting fact about some types of breast cancers: they have a “pause button”! When cancer cells break away from the primary tumor, they travel in the body and eventually grow into dangerous secondary tumors. However, the study showed that the initial tumor can signal the immune system to follow the runaway cells and ‘freeze’ them. In this paused state, the cells cannot grow anymore, stopping secondary tumor growth. The research was performed in mice, however, there are indications that the same process likely happens in humans.

    Read the full story: Garvan Institute of Medical Research
    Scientific publication: Nature Cell BIology


    James P. Allison (left) and Tasuku Honjo (right) discovered how to unleash the immune system to fight tumors. Credit: NobelPrize.org
    The 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine awarded for cancer therapy - daily science news in short

    This year, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine goes to James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo “for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation”. The two scientists discovered how inhibiting the brakes of the immune system can be used to fight cancer. James P. Allison studied a known protein that slows down the immune system. He realized the potential of releasing the brake and thereby unleashing our immune cells to attack tumors. In parallel, Tasuku Honjo discovered a protein on immune cells and revealed that it also operates as a brake, but with a different mechanism of action. Both discoveries were later used for new cancer therapies.

    Read the full story: ScienceBriefss
    Scientific publication: The Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine


    A minimally invasive treatment gives hope to people diagnosed with mitral regurgitation - a problem with the valve between the ventricle and the atrium of the heart
    New procedure improves outcomes for heart failure patients - daily science news in short - medical

    A new clinical trial reported that a minimally invasive procedure called transcatheter mitral valve repair significantly reduced hospitalizations and mortality for heart failure patients. The trial enrolled 614 heart failure patients with moderate-to-severe or severe specific heart conditions at 78 sites in the United States and Canada. The patients who had the new minimally invasive procedure had 47% fewer heart failure-related hospitalizations and 38% fewer deaths than those who were managed medically. “Patients with heart failure… now have substantially more hope because we can improve their quality of life and survival” Gregg Stone, co-principal investigator of the trial, said.

    Read the full story: Columbia University
    Scientific publication: The New England Journal of Medicine


    Microbial diversity of healthy humans. Image: Jonathan Bailey, NHGRI
    Fecal microbiota transplantation restores beneficial bacteria population in cancer patients - health science news

    Fecal microbiota transplantation is a safe and efficient way to restore the beneficial bacteria population in the intestines of cancer patients that underwent antibiotics treatment, a new study shows. Antibiotics are necessary in the case of stem cell transplantation to prevent bacterial infections in stem cell recipients (i.e. the cancer patients). While antibiotics destroy the natural, beneficial bacteria population in the gut that normally enhances immune function and prevents infections, it is important to restore the patient’s microbiota fast. By transplanting the patient’s own microbiota that had been harvested before antibiotics treatment began, this is achieved in a matter of days, rather than weeks with normal hospital care practice.

    Read the full story: NIH – National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
    Scientific publication: Science Translational Medicine


    Bacteria are absent in the spleen of a normal rat (left), but occur in the spleen of MAVS-deficient rat (right). Spleen cells in blue, bacteria in red. Image: Ana Hennino, David Bauché, Emilie Plantamura / CIRI
    What a virus detection system, microbiota and skin allergies have to do with each other - health science news

    Biologists have observed that mice lacking the MAVS gene, necessary for virus detection by the immune system, have an altered composition of intestinal bacteria and severe allergic skin reactions. Transfer of the abnormal bacteria (microbiota) to normal mice caused the same skin allergies as in MAVS-deficient mice, showing that gut microbiota are responsible for the skin health problems. Furthermore, the altered gut microbiotica increased the permeability of the intestines, so that some bacteria could enter the body and migrate to the spleen and lymph nodes. This increased the skin allergies even further. Thus, there is a direct link between the immune system, gut microbiota, and skin allergies, which could be taken into consideration for development of new therapies.

    Read the full story: CNRS
    Scientific publication: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA


    Hunger can make you feel stressed, anxious, and even depressed
    Link between hunger and mood revealed - health science news

    Rats that experienced a sudden blood glucose drop suffered more from stress and anxiety, and experience a depressed mood. In a new study, rats received a metabolism blocker to induce the experience of hypoglycemia in one chamber, and received water in another chamber. Rats would then avoid the chamber where they felt hypoglycemic, and where they had more stress hormones in their blood. Also, the hypoglycemic rats were more sluggish, which was not due to decreased energy supply to the muscles, but rather a result of depressed mood, as this could be reversed by antidepressants. Thus, a sudden drop in blood glucose levels can change mood, making metabolism a factor to reckon with in the treatment of mood disorders, researchers say.

    Read the full story: University of Guelph
    Scientific publication: Psychopharmacology


    News about cancer: cancer cells can hide from the immune system so that immunotherapy stops working
    Why immunotherapy rarely stops cancer - cancer short science news

    Scientists have found out why immunotherapy to fight a cancer initially shrinks a tumor, but cannot turn this into long-term silencing or destruction of cancer cells. Cancer cells can apparently hide themselves from the immune cells (known as T cells) that stimulated by immunotherapy to kill them. Cancer cells can stop displaying molecules on their membranes that T cells need to recognize and then attack them. Fortunately, the researchers found that two already existing medications for the treatment of some cancers, could stop the cancer cells from ceasing the expression of the marker molecules. Thus, this study explains why immunotherapies do not have a long lasting effect, and indicates how immunotherapies might be improved for more effective treatment.

    Read the full story: Fred Hutch Cancer Research Center
    Scientific publication: Nature Communications


    Sleep at regular hours and you will be healthier
    Regular sleep hours promote good health - science news daily in short

    Parents struggle to offer regular sleep hours for their children, often neglecting to do the same for themselves. A new study shows that adults can also benefit from regular sleep hours. After following almost 2,000 adults, researchers concluded that people with irregular sleep hours had higher blood sugar, weighed more, had higher blood pressure and increased the risk of having a heart attack or stroke. The study suggests, therefore an association between sleep irregularity and heart and metabolic diseases (but not necessarily a cause-and-effect relationship). The authors plan to expand the present study in the future to understand better the connections between sleep patterns and health.

    Read the full story: Duke University
    Scientific publication: Scientific Reports


    Scientists multiply immune cells from HIV-infected patients and then place them back in the body to fight the virus
    New therapy for HIV passed Phase 1 clinical trial - science news in short - HIV

    A new therapy for HIV is now tested in humans and it successfully passed the phase I clinical trial. The therapy involves collecting T cells (immune cells) from a patient, multiplying them in the laboratory and then giving them back to the patient to help the body fight disease. Basically, the body’s immune system is helped and “re-educated” to better fight HIV viruses. The primary goal of the study was to show that the therapy is safe and the results are encouraging. The therapy is still to be further tested in future clinical trials.

    Read the full story: ScienceDaily
    Scientific publication: Molecular Therapy


    NLRP12 promotes growth of good bacteria that help to protect against obesity
    An anti-inflammatory protein protects against obesity through microbiota - health short science news

    Scientists have found that the anti-inflammatory protein NLRP12 protects mice against obesity when they are fed a high-fat diet. It does so by promoting the growth of healthy gut bacteria, known as Lachnospiraceae. These bacteria produce the small molecules butyrate and propionate, which improve gut health and protect against obesity and insulin resistance. Interestingly, in obese people, the expression of NLRP12 tends to be lower, suggesting that the results found in mice are relevant to humans. NLRP12 might thus be a novel target for the treatment of obesity.

    Read the full story: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    Scientific publication: Cell Host & Microbe


    A Mediterranean way of eating decreases stroke risk in women over 40, but not in men
    Mediterranean-inspired diet may reduce risk of stroke in women - science news in short

    Aside from the fact that a Mediterranean-style diet is delicious, it may have additional benefits for some. A new report suggests that this way of eating reduces stroke risk for women over 40. This was true regardless of menopausal status or hormone replacement therapy. However, no similar benefits were found for men. The conclusions were drawn after analyzing data from 23,000 participants over a 17-year period. The Mediterranean diet is rich in fish, fruit, vegetables, nuts and beans, and lower in meat and dairy.

    Read the full story: University of East Anglia
    Scientific publication: Stroke


    Delivering specific mRNA molecules with the help of nanoparticles scientists managed to restore the ability of the body to fight prostate cancer - short science news
    Nanoparticles restore cancer-fighting genes- short science news

    In some types of cancer, the development and progression are due to mutations or loss of specific genes called tumor-suppressor genes. Using an innovative technique, scientists managed to restore these genes in a model of prostate cancer. To achieve this, the researchers loaded nanoparticles with messenger RNA (mRNA) for those genes, which gives similar results with having the functional ones in the cells. This effectively restored tumor suppression in mice, even when the cancer was in the metastatic stage, and might lead to the development of a new type of precision medicine for treating cancer.

    Read the full story: Physics World
    Scientific publication: Nature Biomedical Engineering


    Exercising intensely, but for a short time may give the same result as a longer moderate activity, at least regarding the mitochondrial functions
    No time for the gym? Try short high-intensity exercise! - short science news - health

    Many of us use the excuse of not having enough time to skip physical activity, like going to the gym. However, a new study shows there may be a workaround for this. According to the research, a few minutes of high-intensity interval or sprinting exercise induce beneficial improvements in mitochondrial function. Altered mitochondrial function in response to exercise generates signals that may lead to beneficial changes in the cells. Different types of physical exercises were tested and the study found that fewer minutes of higher-intensity exercise produced similar mitochondrial responses compared to a longer moderate-intensity activity. To take note that the study looked at mitochondria, however there may be other changes in the organism that are different between the two types of training.

    Read the full story: Medicalxpress
    Scientific publication: American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology


    T cell receptors bind structurally different peptides, possibly explaining why immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer at times attacks healthy cells
    A new challenge for immunotherapy discovered - cancer science short news

    In the quest for efficient and safe immunotherapies for the treatment of cancer, researchers stumbled upon a surprising way some of the immune cells, the T cells, react with antigens. It appeared that the T cell receptor can bind two distinctively different peptide antigens, showing that T cell receptors can be much more cross-reactive (less specific) than previously though. This is worrisome, because this could be at the basis of why immunotherapy sometimes doesn’t only attack cancer cells, but also healthy cells. These new findings should be incorporated into immunotherapy design platforms, and more research is needed to appreciate the full consequences of this surprising observation, scientists say.

    Read the full story: University of Notre Dame
    Scientific publication: Nature Chemical Biology


    Early bacteria in the gut explain the individuality of the microbiome and determine the degree of protection from disease
    The first gut bacteria help newborns fight diseases - daily science news

    Each of us carries inside a wide range of microbes, called the microbiome, which is unique for every individual. A lot of research has shown how important these microorganisms are for a lot of functions, from digestion to mental health. Now, a new study showed that the very first bacteria colonizing the intestines of newborns may have a long-term impact on their health. But why is the microbiome so different from person to person, even in the case of twins? The study suggested that the order and timing by which the gut is colonized early in life is very important for the high levels of unexplained individuality in the gut microbial communities.

    Read the full story: Folio
    Scientific publication: eLife


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