The Borexino instrument located deep beneath Italy's Appenine Mountains detects neutrinos as they interact with the electrons of an ultra-pure organic liquid scintillator at the center of a large sphere surrounded by 1,000 tons of water. Image: Borexino
Shining light on how the sun shines - space science news

Scientists have found that 99% of the solar energy emitted as neutrinos is produced through nuclear reaction sequences starting with proton-proton fusions, in which hydrogen is converted into helium. The neutrinos were detected with the Borexino instrument, which is located in the ground under the Appenine Mountains in Italy to isolate it from background radiation. Solar neutrinos travel at almost the speed of light, and as many as 420 billion of them hit each square inch of the Earth’s surface every second. As they pass through matter essentially unaffected, it has been hard to detect them, but the Borexino neutrino detector has made it possible to detect them, and increase our understanding of how the sun shines.

Read the full story: UMassAmherst
Scientific publication: Nature